2023年全國碩士研究生考試考研英語(yǔ)一試題真題(含答案詳解+作文范文)_第1頁(yè)
已閱讀1頁(yè),還剩8頁(yè)未讀, 繼續免費閱讀

下載本文檔

版權說(shuō)明:本文檔由用戶(hù)提供并上傳,收益歸屬內容提供方,若內容存在侵權,請進(jìn)行舉報或認領(lǐng)

文檔簡(jiǎn)介

1、<p>  ERP implementation issues in advanced and developing countries</p><p><b>  Abstract</b></p><p>  There is an increasing need to implement a total business solution which s

2、upports major functionalities of a business. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) software is designed to meet this need, and has been widely adopted by organizations in developed countries. Meanwhile, ERP is beginning to

3、appear in many organizations of developing countries. Little research has been conducted to compare the implementation practices of ERP in developed vs developing countries. Our research shows that ERP tech</p>&l

4、t;p>  Key words: Enterprise Resource management; Implementation; Developing countries.</p><p>  Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an industry term for the broad set of activities supported by multi-mo

5、dule application software that helps a manufacturer or a service business manage the important parts of its business. Evolving from MRP systems, ERP has played a significant role in IT for several decades. Since the firs

6、t symbiotic ERP product SAP created in 1972, ERP market revenues are expected to be as high as $52 billion by the year 2002. While there is wide acceptance of ERP in develo</p><p>  ERP in developed countrie

7、s</p><p>  ERP systems have been widely used by companies in developed countries. Organizations in manufacturing, service, and energy industries adopt ERP to:</p><p>  automate the deployment an

8、d management of material, finance and human resources; </p><p>  streamline processes and achieve process improvement; </p><p>  achieve global competitiveness. </p><p>  In this se

9、ction, North America, Europe are selected as representative developed countries.</p><p>  North America (USA, Canada) </p><p>  Europeans designed the first integrated ERP system – SAP in German

10、y, 1972, whereas, organizations in North America seem to have richer experience in this kind of software and have used integrated software solutions for decades. As commercial systems evolved from material planning (MRP)

11、 to enterprise planning (ERP), companies continued investment to bring in newer systems. Currently, two out of three ERP deals in North America are replacement deals.</p><p>  The USA is the primary target o

12、f ERP and represents 66 percent of revenues for the major vendors. Before 2000, one major concern of North American corporations was Y2K problems. After Y2K, management turned its eyes to extending its enterprises. Sever

13、al trends have appeared. E-commerce is a major force. Organizations want their ERP systems to connect more tightly with suppliers and customers via e-commerce. Supply chain management (SCM) products, regarded as post-ERP

14、, are now entering into North</p><p>  Europe (UK, Germany, France) </p><p>  Europe is the second largest target ERP sales market (at 22 percent). Many big ERP vendors started their business fr

15、om Europe; e.g. SAP AG, Baan, JBA International and Intentia. Historically, strong manufacturing industry is an underlying reason for so many ERP vendors in Europe. There are several reasons for Europe’s ERP market. Firs

16、t, economically advanced countries have a solid industrial and manufacturing base. Second, there is a strong national information infrastructure. Third, the multipl</p><p>  Characteristics of ERP implementa

17、tion in developed countries </p><p>  It is easy to understand why North America and Europe occupy the largest ERP market. From national and environmental perspectives, these countries have excellent infrast

18、ructures which effectively facilitate IT diffusion. Strong economic base and growth further drive the need for new technology. Governmental IT policy, deregulation and organizational enthusiasm for IT fuel technology dev

19、elopment. New technologies such as ERP, SCM and others are quickly absorbed by organizations in almost all indu</p><p>  From an organizational perspective, companies in developed countries are more likely t

20、o succeed. Higher IT maturity and favorable computer culture make organizations ready to handle complex technology. Also organizations are developing a strong process management orientation (Davenport, 1994). BPR is prac

21、ticed frequently in North American and European countries.</p><p>  Some trends are observable. First, small and middle sized enterprises (SMEs) are becoming targets of ERP vendors. Second, ERP coupled with

22、e-commerce functionality will dominate the market. E-commerce is becoming a new way of doing business between business and business (B2B) and between business and customer (B2C). CIOs are planning to build electronic com

23、merce and decision-support extensions to ERP implementations. Meanwhile, e-commerce based ERP systems are commercially available。 Third, SCM </p><p>  ERP in developing countries</p><p>  ERP so

24、ftware vendors are experiencing global expansion. Asia/Pacific and Latin American countries are taking the lead. The Asia-Pacific ERP market accounts for 9 percent of revenues, and Latin America for 3 percent. Economic e

25、xpansion, especially in Asian countries, is the major reason. Second, fierce competition and pressures from Western corporations force firms in developing countries to vigorously pursue information technology.</p>

26、<p>  However, ERP is in its early stages in developing countries. Inadequate IT infrastructure, governmental policies, small size of companies, lack of IT/ERP experience, and low IT maturity seriously affect the a

27、doption decision.</p><p>  China, India are selected as representative countries for ERP discussion.</p><p><b>  China </b></p><p>  China has achieved impressive econom

28、ic growth in recent years. It is undergoing a technological change with huge IT investments in both public and private sectors. However, there are only a handful of companies using ERP systems.</p><p>  Inte

29、rnational vendors play a primary role. There are a few local software packages that are low cost but are primarily accounting and financial applications. For example, Yongyou1 software is widely utilized, but it focuses

30、on accounting functions and is not a real ERP system. There are no local professional ERP vendors. Major international vendors have opened their business in major cities. Some vendors access the market via their delegate

31、d international companies such as IBM, Compaq, Andersen,</p><p>  Infrastructure is a major problem. Telecommunications, though significant improvements have been made in recent years, is good only in major

32、cities. The telephone density, although increasing, is still quite low. Internet service is expensive, not to mention ISDN, ATM and other broadband services. The government is finding it necessary to allow competition an

33、d profit making organizations (even foreign companies) to raise the telephone density to its target of eight per 100.</p><p>  Low IT maturity of China’s industries is also a major problem. Enterprises lack

34、a long-term MIS strategy, and IS departments/staff (if they exist) lack project experience. Often, companies have limited process management knowledge, and BPR is seldom conducted. Chinese management style, informal plan

35、ning and process modeling, highly interdependent social and organizational relationships, and attitudes towards organizational change all limit process innovation efforts. Most companies have limited </p><p>

36、;  Owing to these reasons, major ERP customers in China are limited to global MNC corporations. Some large state-owned organizations are potential ERP users but they are haunted by high costs. Small and middle-sized ente

37、rprises are virtually excluded out of this market.</p><p><b>  India </b></p><p>  India has also achieved significant economic growth in recent years. Its IT industry growth is quit

38、e admirable. India is the largest developing country base for global software outsourcing. Moreover, global software outsourcing continues to grow rapidly, with over US$3.00 billion in contracts from developing countries

39、 in 2000. India also owns the best software engineers in the world. Because English is the official business language, its IT staff can communicate effectively with counterparts in </p><p>  However, IT diff

40、usion and implementation lags far behind, and ERP growth in India has been quite slow except in recent years. While the country boasts of decades of manufacturing, availability of skilled workers, English as the business

41、 language, and the first MRP-II/ERP systems introduced over a decade ago, yet the ERP penetration is estimated at a piddling 6 percent. Even this rate was achieved after a 75 percent growth in the last two years. Accordi

42、ng to one estimate, this market was expected</p><p>  Characteristics of ERP implementation in developing countries </p><p>  Several factors were significant in ERP implementation in developing

43、 countries. Among national/environmental factors, current economic status and economic growth, infrastructure, and government regulations fundamentally impact on IT adoption and ERP penetration. In infrastructure such as

44、 transportation, telecommunications, Internet and intranet, mobile telecommunications, and public database systems, developing countries obviously have a poor record and suffer from the consequences. ERP is not a</p&g

45、t;<p>  From an organizational and internal perspective, low IT maturity, small firm size, and lack of process management and BPR experience hamper ERP adoption. Enterprises commonly lack MIS long-term strategy an

46、d project experience. As a result, most customers of IT applications are not domestic companies, but subsidiaries of MNCs. In developing countries, SMEs play a major role in the national economy. Therefore, affordability

47、 and availability are major concerns. Firms also lack process management or</p><p>  Conclusion</p><p>  we discussed ERP implementation in selected developed and developing countries. Problems,

48、 and characteristics of ERP implementation were identified. Vendors who contemplate entering foreign markets can better understand global ERP markets and develop better strategies. Implementers can recognize the environm

49、ental and internal requirements and prepare accordingly. Future research may include: empirically testing and exploring relationships among the various variables.</p><p>  發(fā)達國家和發(fā)展中國家的ERP實(shí)施問(wèn)題</p><p

50、><b>  摘 要</b></p><p>  企業(yè)越來(lái)越需要有一個(gè)全面的商業(yè)解決方案來(lái)支持其業(yè)務(wù)發(fā)展。企業(yè)資源規劃(ERP)軟件是專(zhuān)為滿(mǎn)足這一需要產(chǎn)生的,它已被發(fā)達國家的企業(yè)廣泛采用。同時(shí),ERP系統已經(jīng)開(kāi)始出現在發(fā)展中國家的許多企業(yè)當中。一些研究比較了發(fā)達國家和發(fā)展中國家實(shí)施ERP的做法。我們的研究表明,ERP的實(shí)施面臨著(zhù)經(jīng)濟,文化和基礎設施等問(wèn)題,發(fā)展中國家面臨更多的挑戰。

51、本文研究了關(guān)于發(fā)達國家和發(fā)展中國家的ERP實(shí)施的一系列問(wèn)題。</p><p>  關(guān)鍵字:企業(yè)資源管理 實(shí)施 發(fā)展中國家</p><p>  企業(yè)資源規劃(ERP)是一個(gè)支持廣泛行業(yè)的由多個(gè)模塊組成的應用軟件,可幫助制造業(yè)或服務(wù)業(yè)企業(yè)改進(jìn)其業(yè)務(wù)流程中重要部分。從MRP系統開(kāi)始演變,ERP系統在IT行業(yè)扮演了幾十年的重要角色。第一次ERP產(chǎn)品SAP是在1972年產(chǎn)生的,現在ERP市場(chǎng)的營(yíng)

52、銷(xiāo)額預計將在2002年達到520億美元。ERP在發(fā)達國家被廣泛的接受,如美國、加拿大、英國、澳大利亞,而發(fā)展中國家遠遠落在后面。目前,北美國家占據的ERP市場(chǎng)銷(xiāo)售額的66%,歐洲占22%,而整個(gè)亞洲只有9%。但是,由于經(jīng)濟增長(cháng),發(fā)展中國家所在的亞洲和拉丁美洲正在成為大ERP供應商的主要銷(xiāo)售目標。 </p><p><b>  ERP在發(fā)達國家</b></p><p>

53、  ERP系統已被廣泛使用在發(fā)達國家的公司。生產(chǎn),服務(wù)和能源行業(yè)采用的ERP為了達成以下目的:自動(dòng)化的分配和管理物力,財力和人力資源;簡(jiǎn)化流程,實(shí)現流程改進(jìn);提升形成全球競爭力。在此,選擇北美,歐洲作為發(fā)達國家的代表。</p><p>  北美(美國,加拿大)</p><p>  德國的SAP公司在1972年設計出了第一個(gè)集成的ERP系統,然而北美的企業(yè)在這方面似乎有更豐富的軟件的實(shí)施經(jīng)驗

54、,并已使用了幾十年的集成軟件解決方案。ERP作為商業(yè)系統,從材料計劃(MRP)發(fā)展到企業(yè)規劃(ERP)。很多公司繼續投資,引進(jìn)新的系統。目前,北美三分之二的ERP使用企業(yè)已經(jīng)有更換引進(jìn)新ERP系統的意向。</p><p>  美國是ERP供應商的主要銷(xiāo)售目標,占據66%的營(yíng)業(yè)額。 2000年以前,北美公司主要擔憂(yōu)的是千年蟲(chóng)問(wèn)題。過(guò)了2000年,企業(yè)將目光轉向擴大其企業(yè)規模并有效管理。幾個(gè)發(fā)展趨勢已經(jīng)出現,電子商務(wù)

55、是其中一個(gè)重要趨勢。企業(yè)希望他們的ERP系統通過(guò)電子商務(wù)更加緊密地連接供應商和客戶(hù)。ERP發(fā)展出的供應鏈管理(SCM)概念,現在已近進(jìn)入北美企業(yè)。供應鏈管理職能包括需求預測,采購及采購,庫存和倉庫管理,配送物流。</p><p>  歐洲(英國,德國,法國)</p><p>  歐洲是ERP銷(xiāo)售商的第二大目標,占銷(xiāo)售額的22%。很多大的ERP廠(chǎng)商都是在歐洲創(chuàng )建的,如:BAAN,SAP,JB

56、A International和Intentia。歷史上,強大的制造業(yè)是這么多的ERP廠(chǎng)商在歐洲產(chǎn)生的根本原因。歐洲的ERP市場(chǎng)的繁榮有以下幾個(gè)原因。第一,經(jīng)濟發(fā)達的國家有堅實(shí)的工業(yè)和制造業(yè)基地。第二,這些國家有強大的信息基礎設施。第三,多語(yǔ)言和多幣種的要求增加了ERP軟件的吸引力。第四,高素質(zhì)的員工較多,可實(shí)現先進(jìn)的技術(shù)。</p><p>  發(fā)達國家ERP系統實(shí)施的特點(diǎn)</p><p>

57、;  通過(guò)以上了解很容易理解為什么北美和歐洲占據了最大的ERP市場(chǎng)。從國家和環(huán)境的角度來(lái)看,這些國家有良好的基礎設施,有效地促進(jìn)了信息科技的傳播。堅實(shí)的經(jīng)濟基礎和快速的發(fā)展進(jìn)一步推動(dòng)了新技術(shù)的需求。政府施行了放松管制和鼓勵I(lǐng)T企業(yè)技術(shù)的發(fā)展的政策。如ERP,SCM和其他新技術(shù)正在迅速被幾乎所有的企業(yè)所吸納采用。</p><p>  從組織的角度來(lái)看,發(fā)達國家的大公司更容易成功。更成熟的IT技術(shù)和良好的文化為企業(yè)用

58、計算機來(lái)處理復雜的技術(shù)提供了保障。企業(yè)還在引進(jìn)更好的流程管理模式(達文波特,1994)。 BPR在北美和歐洲頻繁的國家廣泛的實(shí)行。</p><p>  有些趨勢是很明顯的。首先,小型和大中型企業(yè)(中小企業(yè))正在成為ERP供應商的目標。其次,ERP系統與電子商務(wù)功能耦合將主宰市場(chǎng)。電子商務(wù)正在成為企業(yè)和企業(yè)之間(B2B)和企業(yè)與客戶(hù)(B2C)進(jìn)行業(yè)務(wù)的新方式。 CIO們正計劃建立電子商務(wù)和決策支持系統。與此同時(shí),基

59、于ERP系統的電子商務(wù)變成了現實(shí)。第三,供應鏈管理軟件正在取得進(jìn)展。組織追求的是ERP之外的整個(gè)供應鏈可以提供什么支持。</p><p><b>  ERP在發(fā)展中國家</b></p><p>  ERP軟件供應商正在經(jīng)歷的全球擴張。亞洲/太平洋和拉美國家變的越來(lái)越重要。亞太占據ERP銷(xiāo)售額的9%。經(jīng)濟擴張,特別是在亞洲國家,是ERP市場(chǎng)發(fā)展的主要原因。其次,激烈的競

60、爭和壓力迫使發(fā)展中國家的公司大力發(fā)展信息技術(shù)。</p><p>  然而,ERP在發(fā)展中國家仍處于初期階段。 IT基礎設施薄弱,政府的政策,小規模的公司,缺乏資訊/ ERP的經(jīng)驗,IT技術(shù)不成熟,嚴重影響了企業(yè)引入ERP的決定的通過(guò)。在這里,中國,印度被選為代表來(lái)研究企業(yè)資源規劃的實(shí)施。</p><p><b>  中國</b></p><p>

61、;  中國近年來(lái)取得了驕人的經(jīng)濟增長(cháng)。在公共和私營(yíng)部門(mén)產(chǎn)生了巨大技術(shù)變革。然而,僅有少數的公司使用ERP系統。</p><p>  國際廠(chǎng)商發(fā)揮了主要作用。有幾個(gè)本地軟件產(chǎn)品的成本很低,但主要是會(huì )計和財務(wù)應用。例如,用友軟件被廣泛使用,但重點(diǎn)是會(huì )計職能,不是真正的ERP系統。中國沒(méi)有自己的專(zhuān)業(yè)ERP供應商。主要的國際廠(chǎng)商已經(jīng)開(kāi)始在各大城市拓展業(yè)務(wù)。一些廠(chǎng)商通過(guò)他們的授權進(jìn)入市場(chǎng),如IBM,康柏,安達信國際公司,普

62、華永道會(huì )計師事務(wù)所。</p><p>  基礎設施是一個(gè)很大的問(wèn)題。雖然近幾年電信設施已大為改善,尤其是大城市。電話(huà)密度也在增加,但仍然是相當低?;ヂ?lián)網(wǎng)服務(wù)是昂貴的,更不要說(shuō)綜合業(yè)務(wù)數字網(wǎng),自動(dòng)取款機和其他寬帶服務(wù)。政府發(fā)現了允許競爭和非牟利組織(甚至外國公司)提高電話(huà)密度到8%必要性。</p><p>  中國IT產(chǎn)業(yè)技術(shù)水平低也是一個(gè)重要問(wèn)題。企業(yè)缺乏長(cháng)遠的戰略管理信息系統,信息系統部

63、門(mén)/人員(如果它們存在)也缺乏項目經(jīng)驗。通常,企業(yè)對流程管理的認識有限,很少進(jìn)行業(yè)務(wù)流程重組。中國的管理風(fēng)格,非正式的規劃和過(guò)程建模,高度相互依存的社會(huì )和組織的關(guān)系,以及對組織在變革過(guò)程中的態(tài)度都限制了所有的創(chuàng )新努力。大多數公司都限制了國際商業(yè)業(yè)務(wù)。語(yǔ)言也是一個(gè)重要的問(wèn)題。普通話(huà)是官方語(yǔ)言,大多數中國人的口語(yǔ),而英語(yǔ)是跨國公司使用。語(yǔ)言使中國用戶(hù)與國際ERP廠(chǎng)商存在著(zhù)溝通障礙。此外,較快的經(jīng)濟增長(cháng)建立在一個(gè)薄弱的基礎上導致了不同的商業(yè)慣

64、例和跨產(chǎn)業(yè)的企業(yè)結構。</p><p>  由于這些原因,ERP在中國的主要客戶(hù)是有限的全球性跨國公司。一些大型國有企業(yè)也是潛在用戶(hù),但他們受到實(shí)施成本高昂的困擾。小型和中等規模的企業(yè)實(shí)際上被排除出這個(gè)市場(chǎng)。</p><p><b>  印度</b></p><p>  印度近年來(lái)也取得顯著(zhù)的經(jīng)濟增長(cháng)。其IT產(chǎn)業(yè)的增長(cháng)速度相當令人欽佩。印度是全

65、球最大的發(fā)展中國家軟件外包基地。此外,全球軟件外包繼續快速增長(cháng),在2000年超過(guò)$ 3.00億美元的合同來(lái)自發(fā)展中國家。印度還擁有世界上最好的軟件工程師。因為英語(yǔ)是官方商業(yè)語(yǔ)言,它的IT人員可以與世界同行有效的溝通。</p><p>  然而,印度信息技術(shù)的普及和實(shí)行遠遠落后于發(fā)到國家, ERP市場(chǎng)需求的增長(cháng)速度只有印度近年來(lái)相當緩慢。盡管該國擁有幾十年的制造業(yè)基礎,優(yōu)秀的技術(shù)工人,作為商業(yè)語(yǔ)言的英語(yǔ),第一個(gè)MR

66、P-II/ERP系統也已經(jīng)推出了十年之久,但ERP的普及率估計為6%。雖然在達到了這個(gè)速度后,過(guò)去兩年增長(cháng)了百分之75。據估計,這一市場(chǎng)預計將在今年大約只有為1000萬(wàn)美元的銷(xiāo)售額。</p><p>  發(fā)展中國家企業(yè)實(shí)施ERP的特點(diǎn)</p><p>  在發(fā)展中國家實(shí)施ERP有幾個(gè)重要影響因素。各國家/環(huán)境因素,目前的經(jīng)濟狀況和經(jīng)濟增長(cháng)速度,信息基礎設施,從根本上影響政府政策的調整以及I

67、T和ERP的普及。在諸如交通,電信,互聯(lián)網(wǎng)及內聯(lián)網(wǎng),移動(dòng)通信基礎設施和公共數據庫系統等方面,發(fā)展中國家顯然做的不夠。 ERP不是一個(gè)獨立的系統,需要在一個(gè)集成環(huán)境下工作,以獲得最大的效益。然而,不能單靠增加基礎設施來(lái)普及采用ERP,如政府鼓勵外國投資和公平競爭政策等其他因素也至關(guān)重要。</p><p>  從企業(yè)的內部角度來(lái)看,IT技術(shù)水平低,企業(yè)規模小,工藝和管理經(jīng)驗不足,阻礙BPR和ERP的應用。企業(yè)普遍缺乏

68、管理信息系統的長(cháng)期戰略和經(jīng)驗。其結果是,大多數的用戶(hù)不是國內公司,而是跨國公司的子公司。在發(fā)展中國家,中小企業(yè)在國民經(jīng)濟中發(fā)揮了重要作用。因此,支付能力和可用性成為主要的問(wèn)題。企業(yè)還缺乏流程管理的認識和業(yè)務(wù)流程再造的經(jīng)驗。不同于以往的計算機系統,ERP系統是現成的,把自己的邏輯強加于公司之上,往往會(huì )迫使公司改變他們做生意的方式。雖然有前途,但在發(fā)展中國家使用信息技術(shù)的經(jīng)驗來(lái)重新設計業(yè)務(wù)流程的企業(yè)是很有限的。</p><

溫馨提示

  • 1. 本站所有資源如無(wú)特殊說(shuō)明,都需要本地電腦安裝OFFICE2007和PDF閱讀器。圖紙軟件為CAD,CAXA,PROE,UG,SolidWorks等.壓縮文件請下載最新的WinRAR軟件解壓。
  • 2. 本站的文檔不包含任何第三方提供的附件圖紙等,如果需要附件,請聯(lián)系上傳者。文件的所有權益歸上傳用戶(hù)所有。
  • 3. 本站RAR壓縮包中若帶圖紙,網(wǎng)頁(yè)內容里面會(huì )有圖紙預覽,若沒(méi)有圖紙預覽就沒(méi)有圖紙。
  • 4. 未經(jīng)權益所有人同意不得將文件中的內容挪作商業(yè)或盈利用途。
  • 5. 眾賞文庫僅提供信息存儲空間,僅對用戶(hù)上傳內容的表現方式做保護處理,對用戶(hù)上傳分享的文檔內容本身不做任何修改或編輯,并不能對任何下載內容負責。
  • 6. 下載文件中如有侵權或不適當內容,請與我們聯(lián)系,我們立即糾正。
  • 7. 本站不保證下載資源的準確性、安全性和完整性, 同時(shí)也不承擔用戶(hù)因使用這些下載資源對自己和他人造成任何形式的傷害或損失。

最新文檔

評論

0/150

提交評論